pk10开奖结果

北京环球教育:雅思机考实行后带来的中长期影响

来源:SOHU  [  作者:环球教育GEDU   ]  责编:王强  |  侵权/违法举报

原标题:北京环球教育:雅思机考实行后带来的中长期影响

? 本次内容环球教育魏维老师将对雅思机考实行后带来的影响做一个具体分析:

考虑到节省成本、保护环境、提升考试操作舒适度、节约考生通勤时间等方面的因素,更考虑到托福考试TOEFL iBT和PTE学术英语考试均完全采取互联网下计算机考试形式,雅思考试IELTS宣布正式迈入机考与纸笔两种考试模式共同运营的新时代。当然,无论哪种模式的雅思考试,其宗旨仍然是测试考生的运用英语进行沟通的能力,助力考生实现留学、职业、移民等个人发展目标。

雅思官方资助的众多研究项目中,有一项引起笔者的极大兴趣。这项研究由英国三位大学教师联合发起,针对学术(Academic)类雅思写作考试纸笔模式与机考模式下考生表现进行对比。本研究使用调查问卷和访谈形式,调研153位考生的写作表现。当考生完成雅思学术类写作考试(纸笔模式Paper-Based mode下文称为PB模式;与机考模式Computer-Based mode下文称为CB模式)后,与那些考生在大学完成学术写作模式相比较,研究发现存在非常多的相似之处。

最重要的是,本研究项目结论处明确提出:… it is clear that there was no significant difference in overall scores achieved by candidates between the two modes.

(中文释义:同批考生参加纸笔与机考两种模式的雅思写作考试,挑战完全相同的写作任务,按照相同的评分标准,由接受官方培训的同批考官进行阅卷,最终所获得的分数之间没有明显差异。)

 Part 1

本研究的学术发现

本研究调研发现,考生的写作过程可以分为如下的七个阶段。

第一阶段,Task representation;

pk10开奖结果第二阶段,Macro-planning;

第三阶段,Generating ideas;

第四阶段,Organising ideas;

第五阶段,Generating texts;

第六阶段,Online monitoring and revising;

第七阶段,Editing (after writing, monitoring and revising).

接下来,我们详细看一看每个阶段中,考生的表现与反馈。

pk10开奖结果第一和第二阶段,this is the phase when writers create a mental representation of the task and set macro-plans for their writing. (中文释义:考生创造一个对于写作任务的概括,并且制定写作的宏观层面计划。)

第三阶段,there was no noticeable difference reported by the participants about how they generated ideas for the essay between the two modes。(中文释义:在机考模式和纸笔模式下,参与本次研究项目的考生并没有表现出明显差异。)

但是,第四阶段中,受访者表示在organising ideas方面有明显差异。On the PB mode, they tended to organise their ideas at the whole text level according to the structure of their essay. They did the same on the CB mode but they tended to engage more in organizing ideas at the levels of sentences and paragraphs. (中文释义:纸笔模式下,考生根据他们论文的结构,倾向于在整体文本层面上组织想法。机考模式下,考生的做法相同,但是他们倾向于更多的在句子和段落层面上组织想法。)

pk10开奖结果第五阶段,this is a phase when writers translate their mental ideas into words。 (中文释义:本阶段,考生将自己的脑海中想法转化为文字。)

第六阶段,online monitoring and revising refers to the changes writers make to their text as writers write。 They can make changes at the current position of their text or to the previously produced text。 These changes can be at the levels of words, phrases, clauses, sentences and paragraphs, and on different aspects of writing quality, such as accuracy, coherence and line of argument。 (本文释义:网上修正与润色指的是考生对自己写出来的文章做出调整。他们可以在现在这个位子做出变化,或者对于之前写好的文本进行修改。这些调整既可能是单词、词组、从句、句子和段落层面,但也可能是不同的方面,例如准确性,连贯和论证过程。)

第七阶段,在PB模式下,考生在Editing方面,较难进行操作。但是,在CB模式下,考生可以更加方便来进行各种维度的编辑(例如,对于已经写出来的文字,如果考生想要放在文章里其它的位置,可以剪切、粘贴或直接选中移过去,最大程度避免浪费敲出文字又需要删除的时间)。

另外,研究还显示,受访者在纸笔模式下更在意于词汇选择。理由是有关评分标准中的Lexical Resources这一项,纸笔模式考生均分高于机考模式的考生。

Part 2

本研究的影响力分析

这篇研究论文发布于2017年,文中的理论、观点、数据、分析均符合最近3-5年的雅思写作考试发展趋势。

调研结论显示:雅思机考模式下,考生感觉更加放松、更加舒适,特别是针对自己的第一次文章构思有很大帮助,因为他们感觉更容易把控住plan of their writing。

笔者认为,雅思机考不仅仅契合语言测评的未来发展,更能匹配目前大数据、人工智能、互联网+等核心热词的内涵意义。综合来看,考生能够认知雅思写作考试经历就是他们未来在大学写作时的实际经历的缩影,这对考生会造成很大的正面影响。另一方面,从雅思官方的角度出发,未来对于考生考场表现中的认知方式、答题流程、行为结果等方面的核心表现,都能更加准确、便捷、高效的进行收集与分析。

最后,笔者节选出本篇论文的两段话,摘抄如下,大家一起来锻炼下自己的英文阅读能力吧!

The nature of this type of study, in particular, the difficulty in recruiting a large number of participants for two quite different task performances, means that the overall test population is relatively small. However, a population of about 150 is large enough for us to make relatively difinitive statements about their performance. A further complication is that task difficulty is not a feature of the task itself but is affected by the interaction between test-takers and the task, and is therefore sample dependent, as are all reliablity and correlation coefficients. What this means is that though two tasks may exhibit equivalence with one population, this may not necessarily hold true for another. In research designs such as the one used in this study, achieving complete equivalence of task may not be possible unless anchor groups take both forms of the test in each mode. In the study reported here, where it was inappropriate for a candidate to do the same test in both modes, we took the view that establishing acceptable boundaries of equivalence within which we could have confidence was a suitable modus operandi.

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pk10开奖结果Nevertheless, while no significant statistical difference was found in scores between the two modes, future research might investigate whether the test-takers themselves or test users would see the differences as non-meaningful。 Where there is a difference of one band, or even of half a band, it may turn out to be the difference between being accepted onto a program or not, which might therefore have a "significant" impact on a candidate"s future。 While the statistical test of significance is important and previous research has used this or similar measures, it is recommended that test developers need to bear in mind the human perception and consequences of even small differences, such as a half band on IELTS, between different modes and take steps accordingly, perhaps to the extent of issuing a "health warning" with results。

Where we can find this interesting article:

Chan, S., Bax S. and Weir. C. 2017. Researching participants taking IELTS Academic Writing Task 2 (AWT2) in paper mode and in computer mode in terms of score equivalence, cognitive validity and other factors. IELTS Research Reports Online Series, No. 4. British Council, Cambridge English Language Assessment and IDP: IELTS Australia. Available at http://www.ielts.org/teaching-and-research/research-reports.

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